三天集自然之大成

案例来源:
http://www.archdaily.com
所在国家:
西班牙 
用途:
  • 住宅
  • 展示
  • 旅游

案例详情:

【介绍】


三天集自然之大成


“集自然之大成” (Prefabricated Nature),由富有朝气的马德里建筑事务所MYCC负责设计,三个月预制、三天建成的房屋,因其选址独特,贴近自然,完美诠释了模块化房屋所拥有的无限可能。


房屋的指定选址在一个陡坡上,远处是一望无际的大海,近端一片细长的桉树林触手可得。周围满是田野、农场和一排排斜顶房屋。为了与周围的建筑产生共鸣,该房屋沿用了一样的设计风格,两块斜屋顶的表面还覆盖了一层Viroc(一种混合预制材料,类似于木纤维水泥板),这种材料有非常好的强度,并且重量不是很高,因此方便护理和运输。前后两个主墙面由预制好的高耐性钢材包裹,它在当地主要用于打造船壳,因为能控制氧化系数,所以让它拥有很好的自我保护性能。加上外观有点色差,能让人联想到与自然有关的鲜活画面。这种自然和人工的相互影响同样体现在内部装修上,光线照射进来,会在不同房间内投射各异的剪影。


作为一个度假小屋,内部空间应该畅通并采用开放式的原则,把独特的风景作为重点突出。房屋由6个模块组成,大概尺寸为6m x 3m(最大尺寸必须合理满足运送拖车的需求),具体功能是:第一个模块为卧室,必要时可以一分为二;第二个模块主要由浴室和台阶组成;第三个模块为厨房;剩下的三个都是客厅。房顶形成的三角区域被当做一个阁楼,在这里可以自由活动,通过南北两扇窗户可以看到海景以及树林。客厅的设计没有指定用途,可以根据需求作为客房、打打太极或作为孩子的游戏空间。


房屋由两个不同的系统组成:阁楼的预制结构(2D)和底层的模块化结构(3D)。模块主要在工厂进行生产。每个模块主要以横梁和钢柱为框架,然后安装钢混复合盖板作为地板和天花板。在看看内部,一个直径为20厘米的通风腔保证室内空气正常,然后在工厂进行试安装,确定所有部件都合适后,不同的模块和桁架就会进行装车,运往目的地组装。所有部件仅需三天就能在指定地点完工,然后在接下来的两周进行内装工作。


最终呈现在眼前的,是一款高端产品,高标准的设计,采用节能环保的理念,致力于人与自然的和谐共存,让污染物的残余量和排放量得到控制。正如Prefabricated Nature这个名字所强调的意义:是制造的房屋,而不是建造。旨在提醒我们什么是更高效的房屋模式,不像传统建筑,在建造过程中会受到很多外部因素的制约。这种类型的房屋告诉人们,一个可持续的结构,是如何在有限的资源下,去创造无限可能。

 

 

【原文】

 

Prefabricated Nature by MYCC put together in three days


Designed by MYCC, built in three months and assembled in three days, this vacation house is a good example of the many possibilities that modular construction.The program demanded by the client, along with the unique site of the house and modulation and transportation needs of prefabricated construction.


The house is located on a steep slope, in a remote locationan area dominated by the imposing presence of the ocean and the slender forest of eucalyptus trees surrounding it. The terrain is surrounded by harvest fields, family farms and pitched roof houses. The volume was wrapped with two materials with the purpose of setting up a dialogue with the landscape. The roof and the side facades were covered with Viroc®, a prefabricated mixture of cement and wood shavings that, because of its gray color, recalls the wood of eucalyptus trees. This fibercement has a great strength efficiency in spite of being light and, therefore, is easy to maintain and move. The two main facades of the house were clad with perforated Cor-ten trays following the schematized image of a forest silhouette. This material was chosen because it is part of the local tradition of fishing towns like Cedeira, used for the construction of boat hulls, and the gradual and controlled oxidation of which gives the material self-protecting qualities. Its patina and changing color create a lively image that relates with the natural environment. This interplay between the natural and the artificial also benefits the interior spaces, where the light that crosses through these silhouettes casts shadows of trees in the different rooms.


Being a vacation house, the interior spaces are free-flowing and open up to the unique landscape, turning it into the protagonist. The six modules that make up the house, of approximately 6 meters in length and 3 in width (the maximum reasonable width to enable their transportation by trailer) organize the program as follows: the first one contains the bedroom, which can be divided into two; the second contains the bathroom and stairs; the third the kitchen; and the last three the living room. The top floor, under the roof flaps, houses an attic that is a free-flowing space with a double facade that opens up to the sea views towards the southwest and to the forest towards the northeast. It is a space that flows out onto the living room without a designated use, and that can perform as a guest bedroom, tai-chi room or playing area for kids.


The house combines two different systems: prefabricated construction (2D) for the attic and modular construction (3D) for the ground floor. The modules were built in the facilities of the construction company IDM in the Madrid town of Valdemoro. These modules were built with a structure of beams and steel columns and with floor and ceiling slabs of composite decking with reinforced concrete. Towards the interior, a ventilated air cavity of 20 centimeters lets the structure go through. After an assembly trial in the factory, and after making sure that everything fit in properly, the different modules and trusses of the building were taken apart to be packed and moved in trailers the whole 700 kilometers separating the factory from the remote seaside site where its was to be installed. All the parts were put together again on the designated site in just three days, and the finishing touch-ups were done in the following two weeks.


The end result is a high-quality product, designed with high standards of energy efficiency and whose manufacturing entails a contribution to environmental balance, because the generation of polluting residues and emissions is controlled. The very name of the piece stresses its main assett: a house that is manufactured, not built. Something that reminds us of the efficient chain production of the industrial warehouse, covered and controlled, unlike traditional construction that is at the mercy of external elements that can affect the construction process. One could say that this type of manufacturing moves towards a sustainable architecture which makes a responsible use of the limited resources available.

 

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