为什么这些圆形房屋可以在飓风肆虐中得以幸存

案例来源:
http://inhabitat.com
所在国家:
美国 
用途:
  • 住宅
结构:

案例详情:

【介绍】


为什么这些圆形房屋可以在飓风肆虐中得以幸存


六月份的到来预示着太平洋飓风季的到来,根据预报,受拉尼娜现象的影响,今年风暴的规模和破坏力前所未有,伴随着墨西哥海湾海平面上升及海水温度的上升。气象专家要求飓风侵袭地区的居民必须采取应急措施,抵御飓风。天气实时监测显示这场大规模飓风破坏力极强,但是美国北卡罗来纳州的一家名为Deltec的建筑公司却逆风而上,旨在建造一处抗击飓风的房子,不可思议的是这栋房子在桑迪和卡特里娜两场飓风中都完好地幸存下来。


Deltec建筑公司于1968年在北卡罗来纳州的阿什维尔市成立,公司致力于建造海边抗击风暴的房屋,就最近的而言就是针对太平洋南部海域,这里一直是飓风影响的重灾区。Deltec一直秉承最初成立时的理念,在海边居住聚集地区建造抗击飓风的房子,随着公司的不断发展,愈加追求房屋的艺术感和耐久性。


Deltec建造的房屋堪称行业标杆,48年的时间里,建造的5000多栋房子都经受住了强大飓风和龙卷风的考验。至今都让人心有余悸的桑迪,卡特里娜,雨果,伊万,安德鲁和查理飓风都未能摧毁Deltec建造的房屋。


是什么成就了Deltec?秘密其实就在大自然无穷的智慧中。设计师发现自然中最稳定的结构莫过于卵形体,对,就像鸡蛋一般,这就启示他们将这种造型运用于房屋结构,圆形房屋应运而生。于传统四方形房屋不同,圆形房屋去掉了尖锐的边边角角,只保留八角边形的结构。这样一来,冲击力巨大的风暴和海浪能自由通过,不会因为阻挡对房子施加强大的压力。


灵活的连接构件把圆形的房子连接在一起,比传统建筑连接得更为结实。得益于圆滑的角,风流无阻,圆形房屋的房顶对抗飓风的能力更强,常见的飓风掀翻房顶的发生几率微乎其微。


除了利用物理原理保证圆形房屋的抗风性,房子桁架结构的材质为木头,抗风性是传统钢结构的两倍。经过特殊加固的窗户和定制的集成板保证了房子的通风和水管排进水。本着环境友好的原则,圆形房屋的屋顶特别选用了反射光的材料,可以有效减少光照辐射的热量。小窗户上覆盖的高密封性薄膜和被动式太阳能设计使室内温度相对稳定。三层的玻璃,大量的房屋配置都保证完全零能量消耗。所有的努力得到了回报,出色的环保理念设计得到了行业B级认证。


一旦天气预报发布飓风预警,传统房屋中的居民就会想尽一切办法规避飓风的侵害。而这种圆形集成房屋可以轻松运输到世界各地,Deltec的Rachel Kassinger表示,从Deltec创办至今,所有建造的房屋从未在飓风或其他风暴灾害中受损。最严重的不过是掀翻了屋顶的几块瓦片。对一些经历过像桑迪,卡特里娜等严重飓风的居民来说,这无疑是最不可思议和拍手称赞的创造。


【原文】


Why these round houses survive hurricanes that destroy traditional homes


June first marks the official start of the Atlantic hurricane season, and with predictions for bigger and deadlier storms this year due to the transition to La Niña, coupled with above-average sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico, meteorologists are urging inhabitants of hurricane-prone areas to take extra precautions. Thanks to climate change, this trend towards more violent and volatile weather is showing no signs of slowing down, but a North Carolina based company named Deltec Homes has decided to fight back with hurricane-resistant homes that are so storm-proof, they’ve survived the likes of both Sandy and Katrina.


Deltec Homes was started in 1968 in Asheville, NC as a builder of hurricane-resistant round homes in seaside resort communities, particularly in the Atlantic south, where hurricanes are an ever present threat to coastal homes. Although the company has recently expanded into rectilinear Net Zero Energy Homes with the launch of the new Renew Collection (we wrote about it here), Deltec originally made a name for itself with iconic storm resistant round homes. Initially commissioned for seaside resort communities, these structures soon became sought after by homeowners across the country for their striking aesthetics and durability.


Deltec’s hurricane resistant homes are so strong that in over 48 years and with over 5,000 homes built, they’ve never had a home lost due to hurricanes or high winds of any kind. And that is all the more impressive considering that Deltec homes have stood against some of the most detrimental storms in history including Hurricanes Hugo, Sandy, Katrina, Ivan, Andrew and Charley.


So what makes Deltec Homes different from other homes? The earliest forms of human shelter were round – inspired by Mother Nature’s most structurally stable ovoid designs such as the egg. Unlike traditional box-shaped homes, round homes possess only octagonally slight corners and sides. In the absence of sharp corners, wind and waves are permitted to flow freely around the house rather than allowing the kinds of pressure buildups that typically lead to structural failures.


Circular homes are held together by a greater number of interconnected points, making their joints both more flexible and stronger than rectilinear constructions. For these same reasons (slight corners, smoother flow of wind), round roofs are far more successful at withstanding wind and are less susceptible to being lifted off in a storm. Radial floor and roof trusses, which meet in a center ring like spokes on a wheel, lock the building in a constant state of compression, which further reinforces the building’s strength.


In addition to the impressive physics supporting these round homes, Deltec’s trusses and walls are composed of framing lumber that is twice as strong as traditional framing, while their reinforced windows and factory-precise prefab panels work to keep wind and water out. With an emphasis on environmental responsibility, these energy-efficient homes have the option to be topped with a reflective roof that minimizes radiant heat gain. An airtight envelope along with smart window placement and passive solar design, helps maintain the home’s balanced internal temperature. Deltec’s wide variety of add-ons and configurations allow buyers to incorporate solar power, triple paned glass, and more to make the home net-zero energy. The company recently achieved B Corp certification for meeting the highest level of verified social and environmental performance.


With stormy weather on the horizon and speculation that hurricanes will increasingly begin to affect cities that least expect it, prospective homeowners might find it helpful to consider all their options before settling on a traditionally shaped house. These prefab round houses ship anywhere in the world, and according to Deltec’s Rachel Kassinger, “Since Deltec started in 1968 we’ve never lost a home due to hurricanes or high winds of any kind. The most damage ever reported were a few lost shingles off of a roof. It’s an extraordinary record considering our homeowners have had direct hits from some of the most damaging storms including Sandy, Katrina, Hugo, and Charley.”
 

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