一个小屋最快能多久盖起来?答案是7小时

案例来源:
http://www.builderonline.com
所在国家:
爱沙尼亚 
用途:
  • 住宅

案例详情:

【介绍】


一个小屋最快能多久盖起来?答案是7小时


爱沙尼亚建筑事务所Kodasema设计了一款小巧的现代预制装配式小屋,名叫KODA,占地不大,仅250平方英尺(约23平方米),但是卧室、卫生间和储藏间配备齐全。设计师Ülar Mark表示这种小型预制房屋的出现是建筑业的一次革新和创造。


建筑设计师一直把建筑行业同汽车产业做比较,同样都是支柱产业,为何房子建造的技术就不如汽车制造的?为何建造房子就不去考究精密的数据和技术?为何造汽车就去仔细考虑外观设计但是造房子就毫无设计可言?可是相反地,一辆汽车的使用寿命大约15年,而一栋房子却使用数十年甚至上百年。综合来看,房子的建造需要更加细致,更加技术性、功能性的设计,但目前的现状却不容乐观。


KODA的外墙面是6英寸(约0.15米)的水泥纤维夹芯板,内有分层薄木板加强结构的稳定性和结实度。外墙材料和双层玻璃的U值控制在0.1-0.3,隔热性好,保温效果极佳。


建筑用材的耐用性强,举个例子来说吧,建筑每单元需要9立方米的混凝土,如
过时间久了,这一部分可以自动分解并且重新利用。另外,搭建一个KODA不需要额外建造地基,因为它的整个占地面积不足25平方米。


房子的外墙和天花板是平面设计,而每一层是立体式的设计。房子的东西两面各有特色,一面是卧室、厨房和阁楼,另一面是装配玻璃,不是传统的窗户。立体集成式建筑所需的数据具有高度的严谨性,增加了建筑结构的稳定性。房子在工厂预制,由卡车配送,在现场安装。在北美,房子的核定高度在4.15米以下,KODA的尺寸恰好合适。


设计师Ülar Mark在采访中构想了预制式房屋建造的蓝图:“以后要建造更多的预制式房屋,因为它们无论在质量、设计还是价格方面都有传统建筑所达不到的优势。我感觉自己更像是一个汽车设计师,唯一的不同就是我还要考虑如何设计一个合适的车库。”


将来,预制式房屋的建造设计还有遇到数不清的各种各样的问题,像房屋的位置,土地,下水道铺设、房子的生活用水、销量和筹备时间等等,但是Ülar Mark很有自信,他要将KODA进行到底。


【原文】


A PREFAB, CONCRETE TINY HOME THAT EASILY MOVES WITH OWNERS


Dezeen points us to a neat modern little prefab, the KODA, from Estonian design collective Kodasema. It’s no tiny house as we know them in North America, but is 250 square feet of really livable space, with living room, bath and storage on the lower level and a loft above. It is also perhaps revolutionary; Kodasema founder Ülar Mark tries to answer the questions everyone who has ever been involved in prefab has asked over the years in an interview in Katus.eu:


Comparing it to a car factory is fitting, really. Why don’t houses come with sophisticated electronics? Why can’t houses be made with minute precision using robots? Why do all cars have nice, carefully considered designs but most houses seem to be constructed in a hurry, often with no design to see or speak of? It’s a glaring juxtaposition when you remember that a used car usually ends up as scrap within about 15 years, but a house is expected to remain in use for centuries. Logically, houses should have better design and functionality, but sadly the reality is very different.


The walls are a 6” sandwich of fibre cement panels on the exterior, cross laminated timber for strength and structure, with vacuum insulated panels between. They end up with a very high U value of 0.1 W/m²K, which I calculate to be a remarkable R-59, and quadruple-glazed windows with a U value of 0.3 W/m²K, or about an equally remarkable R-19. These are serious numbers. From the website:


Materials are also used sustainably. For example, the construction of one unit requires as little as 9 m³ of concrete and, at the end of its life, components can be disassembled and reused easily. Erecting or relocating a KODA house doesn’t require extensive digging and laying foundations either. In fact, as roomy as it is, KODA has a very small footprint – little more than 25 m2. [~250 SF]


It is a very clever mix of 2D flatpack panels for walls and ceilings, with 3D shallow modules on either end, one containing the bathroom, mechanicals and kitchen with a loft on top, and the other, the glazing, which is fit right into the concrete without traditional window frames since it is made with such accuracy. The two 3D modules will also give it the structural rigidity it needs. Watch them disassemble the prototype in the factory, load it on trucks, and reassemble in Tallinn:


With module and panel heights of 3.925 meters or 12’-10 inches, this might be problematic in North America, where the 13’-6” is usually the maximum height allowed on the highways. But it is awfully close, and the bathroom ceiling is not even minimum by North American standards at 7’-1”.


In the interview, Ülar Mark explains his ambition: “build thousands of houses that are becoming better in quality and design and cheaper in price. As a professional I feel more like a car designer than an architect, the only difference being that I also feel responsible for the way the car parks look.


Given that it still needs land, sewer and water, this will run into the same problems other prefab designs have: where do you put it; it will take a while before he is selling thousands. But he is well on his way with the Koda by Kodasema. And I just love the bike rack.

 

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