灵活伸缩的桥——应对地震的新技术

案例来源:
http://inhabitat.com
案例标签:
所在国家:
美国 
用途:
  • 其他
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【介绍】


灵活伸缩的桥——应对地震的新技术


西雅图是美国太平洋西北区最大的城市,这里依山傍水,气候温和,是绝佳的度假胜地和宜居城市。这里虽然不在全球地震带上,但处在一条地质断层带上,再加上城市人口密度大,楼房集中,一旦发生地震,人员与财产损失都是不可估量的。西雅图市政府提出方案,要沿着城市海岸线建一座大桥。建成后即成为安全通道,一旦地震发生,大桥就是一条宽敞的救生通道。工程预计明年春天完工,这也将是世界上首座抗震大桥。


建设新大桥之前,西雅图市就一直对阿拉斯加高架桥的存在争论不止。截止到目前,讨论的最终结果就是重新用隧道代替高架桥,并且隧道的斜坡入口处一律使用抗震性技术。其中的“记忆性钢管”和具有弯曲延展性混凝土具有一种无与伦比的“魔力”——在每一次持续性大震小震后都能自我恢复。


大桥是对新一代建造技术的全新利用,世界范围内尚属首次。自然的破坏力确实无法避免和精确预算,在这种先天不利的情况下,技术人员就先进行试验性测试,用桥入口做试验。试验15年的结果就是利用这种新技术,桥能承受7.5震级的压力,并顺利恢复。


入口指示司机直接从北向的99号公路进入南部市中心迪尔伯恩。因为之前桥入口的位置正好处在市体育场,一旦发生地震,损失较大,所以在新的大桥开工后,入口的位置也会有所改变。


【原文】


World’s first “flexible bridge” in Seattle keeps its shape after a big earthquake


Although Seattle is not a city plagued by earthquakes, its position on the waterfront of the Pacific Northwest makes it vulnerable to a big quake, especially given its population. City planners taking this into consideration are building a new ‘flexible’ bridge along the city’s shoreline that could help keep key roadways open for traffic in the event of a major quake. When it opens next spring, the bridge could be the first earthquake-proof roadway of its kind in the entire world.


The fate of the Alaskan Way Viaduct has been a topic of many a heated debate in Seattle for years. Currently, a project is underway to replace part of the aging elevated road with a tunnel. The above-ground portion of the road, though, will be comprised of an exit ramp that utilizes new technology to protect it from collapsing during even a very strong earthquake. Memory-retaining metal rods (called “Shape Memory Alloy” rebar) and a bendable concrete composite will help the bridge sustain quakes and then return to its original shape, according to the Washington State Department of Transportation.


The department says this bridge will be the first in the world to employ the new building technology. While it’s impossible to guarantee that any man-made structure can be earthquake-proof, especially since the magnitude of Seattle’s next big earthquake is unpredictable, builders are aiming for the next best thing: a flexible bridge that can absorb earthquake forces, rather than be destroyed by them. Seattle’s new flexible exit ramp bridge will be the first real-world application of materials that the Earthquake Engineering Lab at the University of Nevada, Reno has been researching for 15 years. In testing, bridge columns using the new building technology have withstood magnitude 7.5 earthquakes and then returned to their original shape.


The exit under construction will guide drivers from northbound State Route 99 onto South Dearborn Street, which leads into the heart of the downtown district. The ramp sits immediately west of the city’s sports stadiums, a spot seismologists have predicted would be particularly vulnerable in the event of a large earthquake. Construction on the flexible bridge began in September 2016 and the new exit ramp is expected to be open next spring.

 

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