北京老胡同的改造之---西绒线胡同

案例来源:
http://www.designboom.com
案例标签:
所在国家:
中国 
用途:
  • 住宅
结构:

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【介绍】


北京老胡同的改造之---西线胡同


西绒线胡同区域,看起来就像北京内城其他的地方。临近的街区,呈现出各不相同的类型学特征。点状的高层住宅,低层板式群落住区,临近长安街的宏伟建筑,他们和被保留的一部分胡同大杂院区域互相毗邻。从城市尺度上来看,不同的街道景观之间好像缺乏必要的关联。


对于区域真正的居住者和使用者而言,他们好像不太在乎历史,记忆这些时间上与自己生活的关联,同样也不太在乎家门之外的公共场所、街道、花园和自己家的关系。从建筑尺度上看,被改造的房舍和院子也有类似的问题。


被改造的房舍只有30平方米,在近些年的私搭乱建过程中,被若干个临院的房子挤在中间。导致房子除了向南两米多宽的立面面对室外,其他墙面几乎全变成了不同居所之间的内墙,无法开窗,没有光线,也不能通风。外面的街道,院子和屋子里面好像没有任何关联,互相隔绝。这对于一个微缩的住宅来说,更是悲剧。


我们第一次走进屋子的时候,感觉透不过气来,相较说是一个住所,这更像监狱的监室。屋外的院子里面另一户人家在院内的树旁建了一个简易的小厨房。同时靠西和南侧墙上堆了很多杂物,路径混乱使院子更像临时过道。这个只有30平方米几乎不能通风,采光严重不足的房子, 和这个室外的“过道”要被一对年轻夫妇和他们6岁的小朋友来居住,满足日常生活的需要。


改造前-只有30平方米几乎不能通风采光严重不足的房子


为了回应这种场所互相隔绝和断裂的状况,设计通过植入一系列易建造的微型建筑单元。使原有建筑发生微妙的变化,产生新的建筑体系。创造了一个由城市进入家庭的渐进关系,联结室内与室外,并让光线,风,使用者的活动流动起来。同时,这种新旧元素的共同作用,也为过去和现在做了时间性的联结。为这个三人小家庭提供了一处舒适又充满趣味的生活空间。


植入一系列易建造的微型建筑单元


第一个建筑单元是院子里出挑阳光板屋顶的廊子。设计通过调整屋门的位置和在院子中加建这个出挑的廊子,把进院大门,门房,院子和屋子连接起来,并在室外院子里创造了新的积极的场所。原来的门房过道,变成一个换鞋与外套,置放雨具的空间。廊子面对院子变成连接屋门院子里一个檐下的室外活动场所。


院子里出挑阳光板屋顶的廊子


第二个建筑单元是个双坡顶的棚子。或者棚子也可以被视作一个有进深和内部空间的建筑立面。这个埋伏在原来3米3高檐下的棚子,首先最大化的扩大了建筑向南的采光面。同时把空调,烟道这些建筑设施包含进入它的体系内。使原有坡屋顶旧结构不被破坏。


双坡顶的棚子扩大了建筑向南的采光面


最重要的是,沿着窗户,在屋里和屋外都设置了连续的长台面。天气好的时候打开窗户。建筑的立面变成了一张大桌子。人们可以围绕这张介于室内和室外之间的大桌子展开各种活动。由于室内面积过小,这个策略也得以把一部分室内活动拉到院子里。


人们可以围绕这张介于室内和室外之间的大桌子展开各种活动


第三个建筑单元是儿童房,它包括一个不大的二层平台,和伸出屋面的一个小采光顶。由于6岁孩子需要自己独立的空间,室内的局部被分割成上下两层,由这个新增加的建筑单元来实现。下面是主卧,淋浴间和卫生间,上面则是儿童的独立王国。


第三个建筑单元是儿童房,它包括一个不大的二层平台,和伸出屋面的一个小采光顶


采光顶大大弥补了室内里侧没有通风和采光的局面,在北侧墙上几乎无法开窗的情况下,为南北通风建立了通道。同时,局部屋顶的抬起,也让孩子的空间不至过于低矮压抑。三个钢结构单元和原有木结构房子之间发生良好互动,却又尽量凸现出他们之间的差异。结构构件尽量轻巧,构造尽量简单排除不必要的形式感。房屋的平面布局原则是,所有家具都沿边界排放,在这个极小的空间里空出最大的空隙。使室内不会因为过渡拥挤而失去必要的品质。


局部屋顶的抬起,也让孩子的空间不至过于低矮压抑


【原文】


OEU-ChaO transforms beijing hutong into a cosy, cabin-like home


by inserting three new building units into an existing shell, OEU-ChaO architects has transformed this house in beijing’s xirongxian hutong into a cosy home for a couple and their young child. located in the second ring road of beijing city, china, the hutong is surrounded by a collection of typologies: towers, multistory residential districts, monumental buildings and reserved hutongs and courtyards.


for the local people, they seem not worry about the vanishing of past experience or the relationship between daily life and memory’, explain OEU-ChaO architects. ‘they also pay little attention to the public spaces outside buildings by the street, and to what the relationship is between public and private. ‘isolation': this is happening on the building scale.’ a 30 meter squared property, the hutong is sandwiched between five other houses. most of its exterior walls act as an interior wall in a neighbouring home, with the only door and window openings located on the south facing wall, resulting in very little natural light or air flow.


‘the place is isolated from outside world’, continue the architects, ‘this condition is bad, especially for a such a tiny space’. in the small yard, a small exterior building belonging to a neighbour takes up much of the space, with debris and miscellaneous uses for the space confusing outside with in. ‘before the renovation, we can hardly tell that this is a yard and not a pathway.’


responding to its perceived ‘isolation’ of the space, three independent and easy to build units were introduced and integrated into the original building. intended as a gradation between public and private, outside and inside, these interventions aim to open the space, encouraging the movement of light and air as well as facilitating a natural flow of traffic. the first of these is a solar-roofed porch, creating an open lobby and transitional area as one journeys from the street inside. a double-slope roof gallery is then inserted into the home, effectively enlarging the façade and maximising existing light.


further bridging the gap between outside and in, a metal dining table is attached to either side of the hutong’s new glass façade, creating a liminal space of gathering. during warm weather, the architects imagine the windows being thrown open and events taking place here, integrating the yard into the activities of the home. the third building unit is the children’s room which is lofted onto a mezzanine level above the master bedroom.


a new north facing sky-light further illuminates the home, establishing a connection between the north and south openings. robust wooden rafters frame and outline space, giving the hutong a cosy, cabin-like feeling. this, paired with the modern combination of wood, glass and metal, lends a distinctly scandinavian aesthetic to the micro-home that still manages to pay homage to the original structure.

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